• Smith TJ, Kahaly GJ, Ezra DG, Fleming JC, Dailey RA, Tang RA, Harris GJ, Antonelli A, Salvi M, Goldberg RA, Gigantelli JW, Couch SM, Shriver EM, Hayek BR, Hink EM, Woodward RM, Gabriel K, Magni G, Douglas RS. Teprotumumab for thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. N Engl J Med. 2017 May; 376(18):1748-1761
  • Goncalves AC, Gupta S, Monteiro ML, Douglas RS. Customized minimally invasive orbital decompression surgery improves lower eyelid retraction and contour in thyroid eye disease. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016
  • Eftekhari K, Peng GL, Landsberger H, Douglas R, Massry GG. The Brow fat pad suspension suture: safety profile and clinical observations. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016
  • Al-Holou SN, Elner VM, Douglas RS, Joseph SS. Eyelid swelling and proptosis with systemic implications. AM J Med. 2016. 129:e51-e53
  • Joseph SS, Joseph AW, Douglas RS, Massry GG. Periocular Reconstruction in Patients with Facial Paralysis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2016. 49:475-87.
  • Lee BJ, Atkins S, Ginter A, Elner VM, Nelson CC, Douglas RS. Increased CD40+ Fibrocytes in Patients With Idiopathic Orbital Inflammation. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015. 31:202-6.
  • Chen, H, Shan SJ, Mester T, Douglas RS. TSH-Mediated TNF-α Production in Human Fibrocytes Is Inhibited by Teprotumumab, an IGF-1R antagonist. PLoS One. 2015. 10(6): e0130322.
  • Douglas R, McCoy A, Gupta S. Thyroid Eye Disease. New York:Springer, 2015.
  • Stein JD, Childers D, Gupta S, Talwar N, Nan B, Lee BJ, Smith TJ, Douglas R.  Risk factors for developing thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy among individuals with Graves’ disease.  JAMA Ophthalmol.  Published online December 11, 2014
  • Briceño CA, Gupta S, Douglas RS. Advances in the management of thyroid eye disease. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2013 Summer;53(3):93-101.
  • Rootman DB, Kim MJ, Aldave AJ, Douglas R, Hwang C, Goldberg R. Ocular surface, fornix, and eyelid rehabilitation in Boston type I keratoprosthesis patients with mucous membrane disease. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. Epub 2014 Jun 6.
  • Shan SJ, Douglas RS. The pathophysiology of thyroid eye disease. J Neuroophthalmol.
    2014 Jun;34(2):177-85.
  • Chen H, Mester T, Raychaudhuri N, Kauh CY, Gupta S, Smith TJ, Douglas RS. Teprotumumab, an IGF-1R blocking monoclonal antibody inhibits TSH and IGF-1 action in fibrocytes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 May 30;jc20141580.
  • Douglas RS, Mester T, Ginter A, Kim D. Thyro-tropin receptor and CD40 mediate interleu-kin-8 expression in fibrocytes: implications for thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis). T Am Ophthal Soc. Epub 2014 May.
  • McCoy AN, Kim DS, Gillespie EF, Atkins SJ, Smith TJ, Douglas RS. Rituximab (Rituxan) therapy for severe thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy diminishes IGF-1R(+) T cells.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jul;99(7):E1294-9. Epub 2014 Mar 26.
  • Gillespie EF, Raychaudhuri N, Papageorgiou KI, Atkins SJ, Lu Y, Charara LK, Mester T, Smith TJ, Douglas RS. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in CD40-engaged fibrocytes in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: Involvement of Akt and NF-kappaB. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci Oct 23 2012 [Epub ahead of print].
  • Smith TJ, Hegedüs L, Douglas RS. Role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway in the pathogenesis of Graves’ orbitopathy. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab2012;26:291-302.
  • Fernando R, Atkins S, Raychaudhuri N, Lu Y, Li B, Douglas RS, Smith TJ. Human fibrocytes coexpress thyroglobulin and thyrotropin receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2012;109:7427-32. Epub 2012 Apr 19.
  • Hoa N, Tsui S, Afifiyan NF, Sinha Hikim A, Li B, Douglas RS, Smith TJ. Nuclear targeting of IGF-1 receptor in orbital fibroblasts from Graves’ disease: apparent role of ADAM17. PLoS One 2012;7:e34173. Epub 2012 Apr 10.
  • Papageorgiou KI, Hwang CJ, Chang SH, Jarullazada I, Chokron Garneau H, Ang MJ, King AJ, Mancini R, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA. Thyroid-associated periorbitopathy: eyebrow fat and soft tissue expansion in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy. Arch Ophthalmol2012;130:319-28.
  • Gillespie EF, Papageorgiou KI, Fernando R, Raychaudhuri N, Cockerham KP, Charara LK, Goncalves AC, Zhao SX, Ginter A, Lu Y, Smith TJ, Douglas RS. Increased expression of TSH receptor by fibrocytes in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy leads to chemokine production. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:E740-6. Epub 2012 Mar 7.
  • Gillespie EF, Smith TJ, Douglas RS. Thyroid eye disease: towards an evidence base for treatment in the 21st century. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2012;12:318-24.
  • Briceno C, Douglas RS. A commentary on resource utilization in patients with orbital and periorbital infections. Arc Opthalmol 2012;130:233-4.
  • Hwang CJ, Khadavi NM, Papageorgiou K, Said J, Chong K, Lee D, Smith TJ, Goldberg RA, Douglas RS. Histopathology of brow fat in thyroid-associated orbitopathy. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2012;28:27-9. 2011 Nov 11. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Dolman PJ, Cahill K, Czyz CN, Douglas RS, Elner VM, Feldon S, Kazim M, Lucarelli M, Sivak-Collcott J, Stacey AW, Strianese D, Uddin J. An International Thyroid Eye Disease Society Multicenter Study. Reliability of estimating ductions in thyroid eye disease.Ophthalmology 2012;119:382-9. 2011 Sep 28. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Smith TJ, Padovani-Claudio DA, Lu Y, Raychaudhuri N, Fernando R, Atkins S, Gillespie EF, Gianoukakis AG, Miller BS, Gauger PG, Doherty GM, Douglas RS. Fibroblasts expressing the thyrotropin receptor overarch thyroid and orbit in graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:3827-37. Epub 2011 Sep 28.
  • Smith TJ, Douglas RS. Pharmacotherapy: does selenium supplementation improve Graves ophthalmopathy? Nat Rev Endocrinol 2011;7:505-6.
  • Lee BJ, Elner SG, Douglas RS, Elner VM. Island pedicle and horizontal advancement cheek flaps for medial canthal reconstruction. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2011;27:376-9.
  • Douglas RS, Gupta S. The pathophysiology of thyroid eye disease: implications for immunotherapy. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2011;22:385-90.
  • Zhao SX, Tsui S, Cheung A, Douglas RS, Smith TJ, Banga JP. J Orbital fibrosis in a mouse model of Graves’ disease induced by genetic immunization of thyrotropin receptor cDNA.Endocrinol 2011;210:369-77. Epub 2011 Jun 29.
  • Bhatt R, Nelson CC, Douglas RS Thyroid-associated orbitopathy: Current insights into the pathophysiology, immunology and management Saudi J Ophthal 2011;25:15-20.
  • Chang HS, Lee D, Taban M, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA. “En-glove” lysis of lower eyelid retractors with AlloDerm and dermis-fat grafts in lower eyelid retraction surgery. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2011;27:137-41.
  • Hegedüs L, Smith TJ, Douglas RS, Nielsen CH. Targeted biological therapies for Graves’ disease and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Focus on B-cell depletion with Rituximab. Clin Endocrinol. 2011;74:1-8.
  • Raychaudhuri N, Douglas RS, Smith TJ. PGE2 induces IL-6 in orbital fibroblasts through EP2 receptors and increased gene promoter activity: implications to thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. PLoS One 2010;5:e15296.
  • Douglas RS, Smith TJ. Thyroid Associated Ophthalmopathy. Ophthalmology2010;117:1864-5.
  • Jáñez L, Taban M, Wong CA, Ranganath K, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA. Localized Intraorbital Castleman’s disease: a case report. Orbit 2010;29:158-60.
  • Taban M, Nakra T, Hwang C, Hoenig JA, Douglas RS, Shorr N, Goldberg RA. Aesthetic lateral canthoplasty. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2010;26:190-4.
  • Naik VM, Naik MN, Goldberg RA, Smith TJ, Douglas RS. Immunopathogenesis of thyroid eye disease: emerging paradigms. Surv Ophthalmol 2010;55:215-226.
  • Lee S, Taban M, Mancini R, Chong K, Goldberg RA, Douglas RS. Endoscopic removal of nasoglabellar dermoid cysts. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2010;26:136-9.
  • Khadavi NM, Mancini R, Nakra T, Tsirbas AC, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA, Duckwiler GR. Rare dural arteriovenous fistula of the lesser sphenoid wing sinus. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2009;25:404-6.
  • Taban M, Nakra T, Mancini R, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA. Orbital wall fracture repair using Seprafilm. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2009;25:211-4.
  • Douglas RS, Afifiyan NF, Hwang CJ, Chong K, Haider U, Richards P, Gianoukakis AG, Smith TJ. Increased generation of fibrocytes in thyroid–associated ophthalmopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95:430–8.
  • Khanna D, Chong KK, Afifiyan NF, Hwang CJ, Lee DK, Garneau HC, Goldberg RA, Darwin CH, Smith TJ, Douglas RS. Rituximab treatment of patients with severe, corticosteroid-resistant thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Ophthalmology 2010;117:133-9.e2. Epub 2009 Oct 8.
  • Douglas RS, Tsirbas A, Gordon M, Lee D, Khadavi N, Garneau HC, Goldberg RA, Cahill K, Dolman PJ, Elner V, Feldon S, Lucarelli M, Uddin J, Kazim M, Smith TJ, Khanna D; International Thyroid Eye Disease Society. Development of criteria for evaluating clinical response in thyroid eye disease using a modified Delphi technique. Arch Ophthalmol2009;127:1155-60.
  • Taban M, Mancini R, Nakra T, Velez FG, Ela-Dalman N, Tsirbas A, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA. Nonsurgical management of congenital eyelid malpositions using hyaluronic Acid gel.Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2009;25:259-63.
  • Hwang C, Afifiyan N, Sand D, Naik V, Said J, Pollock S, Chen B, Phipps RP, Goldberg RA, Smith TJ, Douglas RS. Orbital fibroblasts from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy over-express CD40: CD154 hyper-induces IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50:2262-8. Epub 2008 Dec 30.
  • Douglas RS, Brix TH, Hwang CJ, Hegedüs L, Smith TJ. Divergent frequencies of IGF-1R+ blood lymphocytes in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for Graves’ disease: Evidence for a phenotypic shift ascribable to non-genetic factors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab2009;94:1797-802. Epub 2009 Feb 24.
  • Shadpour JM, Menghani RM, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA, Tsirbas A. Reactivation of thyroid associated orbitopathy after cataract surgery. Jpn J Ophthalmol 2009;53:44-46.
  • Douglas RS, Naik V, Hwang C, Afifiyan NF, Gianoukakis AG, Sand D, Kamat S, Smith TJ. B cells from patients with Graves’ disease aberrantly express the IGF-1 receptor: Implications for disease pathogenesis. J Immunol 2008;181:5768-5774.
  • Tsui S, Naik V, Hoa N, Hwang CJ, Hikim AS, Gianoukakis AG, Douglas RS, Smith TJ. Evidence for an association between TSH and IGF-1 receptors: A tale of two antigens implicated in Graves’ disease. J Immunol 2008;181:4397-4405.
  • Douglas RS, Goldberg RA, Smith TJ. A symposium on thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, also known as Graves’ orbitopathy at the Jules Stein Eye Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles. Thyroid 2008;18:931.
  • Goldberg RA, Samimi DB, Tsirbas A, Douglas RS. The hydrogel lacrimal stent for dacryocystorhinostomy: preliminary experience. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2008;24:85-90.
  • Bhatnager A, Eckstein LA, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA. Congenital lacrimal sac fistula: intraoperative visualization by polyvinyl siloxane cast. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg2008;24:158-160.
  • Smith TJ, Tsai CC, Shih MJ, Tsui, Chen B, Han R, Naik V, King CS, Sand D, Kamat S, Goldberg RA, Phipps R, Douglas RS, Gianoukakis AG. Unique attributes of orbital fibroblasts and global alterations in IGF-1 receptor signaling could explain thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Thyroid 2008;18:983-988.
  • Naik V, Khadavi N, Naik M, Hwang C, Goldberg RA, Tsirbas A, Smith TJ, Douglas RS. Biologic therapeutics in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: Translating disease mechanism into therapy. Thyroid 2008;18:967-971.
  • Smith TJ, Douglas RS.  Pathophysiology of Graves’ Orbitopathy.  In: Albert D, Miller J, Azar D, Blodi B, eds. Albert and Jakobiec’s Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology, 3rd edition. Philadelphia:Saunders-Elsevier, 2008:2913-2926.
  • Goldberg RA, Lee S, Jayasundera T, Tsirbas A, Douglas RS, McCann JD. Treatment of lower eyelid retraction by expansion of the lower eyelid with hyaluronic acid gel. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2007;23:343-348.
  • Zoumalan CI, Cockerham KP, Turbin RE, Volpe NJ, Kazim M, Douglas RS, Feldon SE. Efficacy of corticosteroids and external beam radiation in the management of moderate to severe thyroid eye disease. J Neuroophthalmol 2007;27:205-214.
  • Douglas RS, Gianoukakis AG, Goldberg RA, Kamat S, Smith TJ. Circulating mononuclear cells from euthyroid patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy exhibit characteristic phenotypes. Clin Exp Immunol 2007;148:64-71.
  • Douglas RS, Gianoukakis AG, Kamat S, Smith TJ. Aberrant expression of the IGF-1 receptor by T cells from patients with Graves’ disease may carry functional consequences for disease pathogenesis. J Immunol 2007;178:3281-3287.
  • Bhatnagar A, Hoyama E, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA. Graves’ Orbitopathy. Ophthalmology2007;114:392.e1-2.
  • Douglas RS, Smith TJ. Thyroid Related Orbitopathy: New Immunologic Concepts and Future Implications.  In:Guthoff R. and Katowitz J., eds. Essentials in Ophthalmology – Oculoplastics and Orbit. Berlin:Springer-Verlag 2007:123-141.
  • Modjtahedi SP, Modjtahedi BS, Mansury AM, Selva D, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA, Leibovitch I. Pharmacological treatments for thyroid eye disease. Drugs 2006;66:1685-1700.
  • Ben Simon GJ, Syed H, Douglas R, Schwartz R, Goldberg RA, McCann JD. Clinical manifestations and treatment outcome of optic neuropathy in thyroid-related orbitopathy.Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 2006;37:284-290.
  • Groth M, Bhatnagar A, Clearihue W, Goldberg R, Douglas RS. Long term efficacy of biomodeled polymethyl methacrylate implants for orbitofacial defects. Arch Facial Plast Surgery 2006;8:381-389.
  • Nakra T, Ben Simon GJ, Douglas RS, Schwarcz RM, McCann JD, Goldberg RA. Comparing outcomes of enucleation and evisceration Ophthalmology 2006;113:2270-2275.
  • Gianoukakis AG, Douglas RS, King CS, Cruikshank WW, Smith TJ. IgG from patients with Graves’ disease induces IL-16 and RANTES expression in cultured human thyrocytes: A putative mechanism for T cell infiltration of the thyroid in autoimmune disease. Endocrinol2006;147:1941-1949.
  • Chen B, Tsui S, Boeglin WE, Douglas RS, Brash AR, Smith TJ. IL-4 induces 15-lipoxygenase expression in human orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves’ disease: Evidence for anatomic site–selective action of Th2 cytokines. J Biol Chem2006;281:18296-18306.
  • Douglas RS, Bhatnagar A, Goldberg RA. New innovations in the surgical management of thyroid–related orbitopathy. Techn in Ophthal 2006;3:1-7.
  • Simon GJ, Schwarcz RM, Douglas R, Fiaschetti D, McCann JD, Goldberg RA. Orbital exenteration: One size does not fit all. Am J Ophthal 2005;139:11-17.
  • Taban M, Douglas RS, Li T, Goldberg RA, Shorr N. Efficacy of thick Alloderm graft for lower eyelid reconstruction:comparison to hard palate and thin Alloderm grafts. Arch Facial Plas Surg 2005;7:38-44.
  • Douglas RS, Donsoff I, Cook T, Shorr N. Collagen fillers in facial aesthetic surgery. Facial Plastic Surg 2004;20:117-123.
  • Ben Simon GJ, Syed HM, Douglas R, McCann JD, Goldberg RA. Extraocular muscle enlargement with tendon involvement in thyroid-associated orbitopathy. Am J Ophthalmol2004;137:1145-1147.
  • Cook T, Nakra T, Shorr N, Douglas RS. Facial recontouring with autogenous fat. Facial Plastic Surg 2004;20:145-147.
  • Douglas RS, Goldberg RA, Shorr N. Adjunctive techniques for prevention of lower eyelid retraction. Am J Cosmetic Surg 2004;21:5-11.
  • Nakra T, Cook T, Douglas R, Goldberg R. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans metastasizing to the orbit. Arch Ophthal 2004;122:1240.
  • Cook T, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA, Shorr N. Fat repositioning in transconjunctival lower eyelid blepharoplasty. In: Mauriello JA, ed. Techniques of Cosmetic Eyelid Surgery: A Case Study Approach. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004:148-52.
  • Douglas RS, Cook T, Donsoff I, Shorr N. Injectable fillers in facial aesthetic surgery. In: Mauriello JA, ed. Techniques of Cosmetic Eyelid Surgery: A Case Study Approach.Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004:256-68.
  • Douglas RS, Cook T, Shorr N. Lumps and Bumps: Late postsurgical inflammatory and infectious lesions. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 2003;112:1923-1928.
  • Cook T, Goldberg RA, Douglas R, Eshaghian B, Shorr N. The horizontal dynamic of the medial and lateral canthus. Opthal Recon Surg 2003;19:297-304.
  • Douglas RS, Goldstein SM, Gausas RE, Volpe NJ. Thyroid ophthalmopathy: Current concepts. Comprehensive Ophthalmology 2003;4:139-146.
  • Mauriello JA, Franklin M, Carter S, Dresner S, Hartstein M, Herion MA, Gausas R, Douglas R, Goldberger S, Gonnering RS, Perez N, Khan J, White W, Faerber T, Kronish J, Wesley R. Atypical mycobacterial infection of the periocular region after periocular and facial surgery.Ophthal Recon Surg 2003;19:182-188.
  • Douglas RS, Duncan J, Brucker A, Prenner JL, Brucker AJ. Foveal spot: A report of 13 cases. Retina 2003;23:348-353.
  • Goldstein SM, Douglas RS, Binenbaum G, Katowitz JA. Paediatric periocular granuloma annulare. Acta Scandinavica 2003;81:90-91.
  • Brown KE, Goldstein SM, Douglas RS, Katowitz JA. Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis: a neurocutaneous syndrome. J AAPOS 2003;7:148-149.
  • Douglas RS, Gausas RE. A systematic comprehensive approach to management of irreversible facial paralysis. Facial Plastic Surg 2003;19:107-112.
  • Douglas RS, Goldstein SM, Nichols C. Acute myelogenous leukemia presenting as a conjunctival lesion and red eye. Acta Scandinavica 2002;80:671-672.
  • Douglas RS, Goldstein SM, Einhorn E, Ibarra MS, Gausas RE. Metastatic breast cancer to four eyelids; clinicopathologic findings. Cutis 2002;70:291-293.
  • Douglas RS, Goldstein SM, Katowitz JA, Gausas RE, Tsai D, Sharma A, Nichols C. Orbital presentation of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder: A small case series.Ophthalmology 2002;109:2351-2355.
  • Goldstein SM, Douglas RS. Epiphora: What to do when probing fails. Rev Ophthal2002;9:08.
  • Prenner JL, Binenbaum G, Carpentieri DF, Goldstein SM, Douglas RS, Hertle RW, Ruchelli E, Katowitz JA. Treacher Collins syndrome with novel ophthalmic findings and visceral anomalies. Br J Ophthal 2002;86:472-473.
  • Majka M, Ratajcak J, Lee B, Honczarenko M, Douglas RS, Kowalska MA, Silberstein L, Gewirtz A, Ratajcak MZ. The role of HIV-related chemokine receptors and chemokines in human erythropoiesis in vitro. Stem Cells 2000;18:128-138.
  • Zaki M, Douglas R, Patten N, Bachinsky M, Lamb R, Nowell PC, Moore JS. Disruption of the interferon gamma cytokine network in chronic lymphocytic leukemia contributes to resistance of leukemic B cells to apoptosis. Leukemia Res 2000;24:611-621.
  • Honczarenko M, Douglas RS, Mathias C, Lee B, Ratajczak M, Silberstein LE. SDF-1 responsiveness does not correlate with CXCR4 expression levels of developing bone marrow B cells. Blood 1999;94:2990-2998.
  • Douglas RS, Pletcher CH, Nowell PC, Moore JS. A novel approach for coordinate evaluation of cell phenotype, apoptosis and cell cycle using multicolor flow cytometry. Cytometry1998;32:57-65.
  • Douglas R, Woo E, Capocasale R, Tarshis A, Nowell P, Moore J. Altered response to and production of TGF-beta by B cells from autoimmune NZB mice. Cellular Immunol1997;179:126-37.
  • Douglas RS, Capocasale RJ, Lamb RJ, Nowell PC, Moore JS. CLL B cells are resistant to the apoptotic effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Blood 1997;89:941-947.
  • Douglas RS, Tarshis AD, Pletcher CH, Jr., Nowell PC, Moore JS. A simplified method for the coordinate examination of apoptosis and surface phenotype of murine lymphocytes. J Immunol Methods 1995;188:219-228.
  • Fox F, Ford S, Douglas R, Cherian S, Nowell P. Evidence that TGF-beta can inhibit human T-lymphocyte proliferation through paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. Cellular Immunol1993;150:45-58.